Special Aptitudes of Mediums.—Synoptical List of the
different Varieties of Mediums.
185. BESIDES the categories of mediums we have
enumerated, mediumship presents an infinite variety
of shades which constitute what are called special
mediums, who possess peculiar aptitudes not yet de-
fined, according to the qualities and knowledge of the
The nature of the communication always sustains a
relation to the nature of the spirit, and bears the seal
of his elevation or inferiority, his knowledge or igno-
rance ; but, merit being equal in a hierarchical point of
view, he has undoubtedly a propensity to engage in
one thing rather than another ;• the rapping spirits, for
instance, never depart from physical manifestations ;
and among those who give intelligent manifestations
are spirit poets, musicians, painters, moralists, scientists,
physicians, &c. We speak of spirits of a middle
order, for, once arrived at a certain degree, the apti-
tudes are blended in the unity of perfection. But,
besides the aptitude of the spirit, there is that of the
medium, who is an instrument for him, more or less
suitable, more or less flexible, and in whom he discov-
ers special qualities that we cannot appreciate.
Let us make a comparison : a very skillful musician
has in his hands several violins, which, to the ordinary
eye, will all be very good instruments, but between
which the consummate artist distinguishes a great
difference ; he perceives therein shades of exceeding
delicacy, which make him choose some and reject
others, shades which he comprehends rather by intui-
tion than by anything he can define in them. It is
the same with respect to mediums ; with equal quali-
ties in the medianimic power, the spirit will give the
preference to one or to the other, according to the
kind of communication he desires to make. Thus, for
instance, persons, as mediums, write admirable poems,
though in the ordinary conditions they never knew
how, nor could compose two verses; others, on the
contrary, who are poets, and who, as mediums, have
been able to write only prose, in spite of their desire.
The same with drawing, music, &c.
There are those who, without having, by themselves,
any scientific knowledge, have a more special aptitude
for receiving scientific communications ; others are for
historical studies; others serve more easily as inter-
preters for spirit moralists ; in a word, whatever may
be the flexibility of the medium, the communications
he receives with, most facility have, generally, a special
seal; there are even those who never emerge from a
certain circle of ideas, and when they are taken from
that, they have but incomplete, laconic, and often false,
communications. Aside from the causes of aptitude,
the spirits communicate more or less willingly by such
or such an intermediary, according to their sympa-
thies ; so, all other things being equal, the same spirit
will be much more explicit with certain mediums,
solely because they suit him better.
186. It would then be an error, if, having at hand a
good medium, even one who writes with the utmost
facility, we should from that alone expect to obtain
good communications of all kinds. The primary condition certainly is, to be assured of the source where they emanate, that is, of the qualities of the spirit who
transmits them ; but it is not the less necessary to be
careful of the qualities of the instrument given to the
spirit: we must, then, study the nature of the medium,as we study the nature of the spirit, for these are the
two essential elements for obtaining a satisfactory
result. There is a third, that plays an equally important part—the intention, the secret thought, the more or less praiseworthy sentiment of the interrogator;
and so it may be said, To obtain agood communication, it must emanatefrom agood spirit; that this good spirit
may be able to transmit it, he must have a good instrument ; that he may desire to transmit it, the motive must
The spirit, who reads in the thought, judges if the
question proposed merits a serious answer, and if
the person who addresses him is worthy to receive it:
in a contrary case, he does not- lose his time sowing
good seed on stony ground; and then trifling, mock-
ing, spirits take his place, because, troubling themselves
very little about the truth, they do not look at things
so closely, and are usually but little scrupulous as to
the end or means.-
We here sum up the principal kinds of mediumship,
before presenting a kind of synoptical list, comprising
those we have already described in the preceding
chapters, indicating the numbers of those to which we
shall add further details.
We have grouped the different varieties of mediums by analogy with causes and effects, but do not propose
there shall be anything absolute in this classification.
Some are frequently met, others are rare and exceptional, which we have taken care to mention. These
last indications have all been furnished by spirits,
who, besides, have reviewed this descriptive list with
an exceedingly particular care, and have completed it
by numerous observations and new categories, so that
it may be said to be their entire work. We have indicated by quotation marks their textual observations
when we have thought it necessary to make them more
prominent. They are mostly from Erastus and Socrates.
187. Mediums may be divided into two great
MEDIUMS FOR PHYSICAL EFFECTS. Those who have
the power to induce material effects or ostensible
manifestations. (No. 160.)
Varieties common to all Kinds of Mediumship.
MEDIUMS FOR INTELLECTUAL EFFECTS. Those who.
are more especially proper to receive and transmit
intelligent communications.. (No. 65, &c.)
All the other varieties more or less directly belong
to one or the other of these classes ; some pertain to
both. If the different phenomena produced under
medianimic influence are analyzed, it will be seen that
in all there is a physical effect, and that to the physical
effects are most often joined an intelligent one. The
boundary between the two is sometimes difficult to
establish; but that is of no consequence. We comprehend under the denomination Mediums for Intellectual Effects those who can more specially serve as
intermediaries for regular and continuous communica-
tions. (No. 133.)
188. Sensitive Mediums. Persons susceptible to the
presence of spirits by a general or local, a vague or
material impression. Most of them distinguish the
spirits, good or bad, by the nature of the impression.
"Delicate and very sensitive mediums should abstain from communications with violent spirits, or those
whose impression is painful, because of the fatigue resulting from it."
Natural or Unconscious Mediums. Those who pro-
duce the phenomena spontaneously/without any participation of their will, and often against it. (No. 161.)
Optional or Voluntary Mediums. Those who have
the power of inducing the phenomena by an act of
their will. (No. 160.) '
" Whatever may be this will, they could do nothing
should the spirits refuse, which proves the intervention
of a foreign power."
Special Varieties for Physical Effects.
189. Tipping Mediums. Those by whose influence
noises and rappings are produced. A very common
variety, with or without the will. •
Moving Mediums. Those who produce the move-
ment of inert bodies. Very common. (No. 61.)
Mediums for Translations and Suspensions. Those
who produce the aerial translations and the suspension
in space, without support, of inert bodies. There are
those who can raise themselves. More or less rare,
according to the development of the phenomenon ; very
rare in the latter case. (Nos. 75, &c, and No. 80.)
Musical Mediums. They induce the playing of instruments without contact. V ery rare. (No. 74, ques-
Mediums for Apparitions. Those who can induce
fluidic or tangible apparitions visible to those present (No.100, question 27, and No. 104.)
Mediums for Materialisation. Those who can serve
as. auxiliaries to the spirits, to bring material objects.
A variety of the moving mediums, and mediums for
translations. Exceptional. (No. 96.)
Nocturnal Mediums. Those who obtain certain
physical effects only in obscurity. I give the answer
of a spirit to the question, if these mediums may be
considered as forming a variety.
" A specialty may certainly be made of i t ; but this
phenomenon pertains rather to surrounding conditions
than to the nature of the medium or the spirits. I
should add that some escape this influence of the surroundings, and that most of the nocturnal mediums
could, by practice, succeed as well in the light as in the
darkness. This variety is not very numerous ; and it
must be said, that under cover of this condition, which
allows so much liberty in the employment of tricks,
ventriloquism, and acoustic pipes, charlatans have too
often played upon credulity, passing themselves off for
mediums in order to make money. But what matter ?
Private as well as public jugglers will be cruelly un-
masked, and the spirits will prove to them that it is
not good to interfere with their affairs. Yes, I repeat
it, certain charlatans will be rapped over the fingers in
a rude enough fashion to disgust them with the part
of false mediums. Besides, all that is but for a time.
Those who obtain direct
writing. A very rare phenomenon, and one very easy
to imitate by jugglery. (No. 177.) '
Remark. The spirits have insisted, against our
opinion, in classing direct writing among the physical
phenomena, for the reason, they say, that "intelli-
gent effects are those by which the spirits use the
cerebral material of the medium, which is not the case
in direct writing; the action of the medium is here
wholly material, while with the writing medium, even
when entirely mechanical, the brain always plays an
Healing Mediums. Those who have the power of heal-
ing or soothing by laying on of hands, or by prayer.
" This faculty is not essentially medianimic ; it be-
longs- to all true believers, whether they are mediums
or not; it is often only an exaltation of magnetic power,
fortified, in case of need, by the concurrence of good
spirits." (No. 175.)
Excitative Mediums. Persons who have the power
of developing in others, by their influence, the faculty
" This is rather a magnetic effect, than mediumship
proper, for nothing proves the intervention of a spirit.
In all cases it belongs to the order of physical effects.
(See chapter on the Formation of Mediums)
Special Mediums for Intellectual Effects. — Various
190. Hearing Mediums. Those who hear spirits.
Quite common. (No. 165.)
" There are many who imagine they hear, when it is
Speaking Mediums. Those who speak under the in-
fluence of spirits. Quite common. (No. 166.)
Seeing Mediums. Those who see spirits in a waking
The accidental or unforeseen sight of a spirit under
particular circumstances is quite frequent; but the
habitual or optional sight of spirits without distinction is exceptional. (No. 167.)
" It is an aptitude to which the actual state of the
organs is opposed; this is why you must not always
believe the word of those who say they see spirits."
Inspired Mediums. Those to whom thoughts are
suggested by spirits, most often against their will, be
it for the ordinary acts of life, or for great intellectual
labors. (No. 182.)
Mediums for Presentiments. Persons who, under
certain circumstances, have a vague intuition of ordinary future events. (No. 184.)
Prophetic Mediums. A variety of the inspired or pre-
sentiment mediums; they receive, by God's permission,
and with more precision than presentiment mediums,
the revelation of future events of a general interest, and
which they are charged to make known to men for
" If there. are true prophets, still more are there of
false ones, and of those who take the dreams of their
imagination for revelations, when they are not impostors who pretend to be prophets, from ambition."
(See Book on Spirits, No. 624, Characters of the true
Somnambulistic Mediums. Those who, in a state
of somnambulism, are assisted by. spirits. (No. 172.)
Ecstatic Mediums. Those who, in a state of ecstasy,
receive revelations from spirits.
" Many ecstatics are the sport of their own imagina-
tion, and of deceiving spirits, who profit by their exatation. Those who deserve perfect confidence are very
Painting and Drawing Mediums. Those who paint
or draw under the influence of spirits. We speak of
those who obtain serious things, for this name cannot
be given to certain mediums who are made to draw, by
mocking spirits, things so grotesque that the merest
scholar would disavow them. Frivolous spirits are
imitators. At the time when the remarkable draw-
ings of Jupiter appeared, there arose a great number
'of pretended drawing mediums, with whom the mock-
ing spirits amused themselves by making them draw
the most ridiculous things. One of them, among
others, wishing to outdo the drawings of Jupiter, in
dimensions, at least, if not in quality, made a medium
draw a monument covering sheets enough to have
reached two stories high. Many others drew so-called
portraits which were veritable caricatures. (Revue
Spirite, August, 1858.)
Medium Musicians. Those who execute, compose,
or write music under the influence of spirits. There
are mechanical, semi-mechanical, intuitive, and inspired
medium musicians; the same as for literary communications. (See Mediums for Musical Effects)
VARIETIES OF WRITING MEDIUMS.
1. Accordittg to tlie Met/tods of Execution.
191. Writing or Psychographic Mediums. Those
who have the faculty of writing under the influence of
Mechanical Writing Mediums. Those whose hand
receives an involuntary impulse, and who have no consciousness of what they write. Very rare. (No. 179.)
Semi-mechanical Mediums. Those whose hand moves
involuntarily, but who have instantaneous consciousness of the words or phrases as they write them. The
most common. (No. 181.)
Intuitive Mediums. Those to whom the spirit com-
municates by the thought, and whose hand is guided
by the will. They differ from inspired mediums, inso-
much as these last have no need to write, while the
intuitive medium writes the thought suggested to him
instantaneously on any given and induced subject.
" They are very common, but also very subject to
error, because often they cannot distinguish what
emanates from the spirits, and what from their own
Polygraphic Mediums. Those whose writing changes
with the spirit who communicates, or who are apt to
reproduce the writing the spirit had during his life.
The first case is very common ; the second — that of
the identity of the writing — is more rare. (No. 219.)
Polyglot Mediums. Those who have the faculty of
speaking or writing in languages unknown to them.
Illiterate Mediums. Those who write as mediums,
without knowing how to read or write in the ordinary
" More rare than the preceding; there is a much
greater material difficulty to overcome."
2. According to the Development of the Faculty.
192. Novice Mediums. Those in whom the faculty is
not yet fully developed, and who lack the necessary
Unproductive Mediums. Those who can succeed in obtaining only insignificant things — monosyllables,
signs, or letters, without connection. (See chapter on
Formation of Mediums)
Formed of Complete Mediums. Those in whom the
medianimic faculties are completely developed, who
transmit the communications they receive with facility
and promptitude, without hesitation. It may be readily
supposed that this result is not obtained without prac-
tice, while with novice mediums the communications
are slow and difficult.
Laconic Mediums. Those whose communications,
though easy, are brief and without development.
Explicit Mediums. The communications they obtain
have all the fullness and extent that a perfect writer
" This aptitude is due to the expansion and the
facility of habit, often acquired in a short time, while
experience is the result of a serious study of all the
difficulties presented in the practice of Spiritism. Experience gives the medium the tact necessary to
appreciate the nature of the spirits, who manifest
themselves, to judge their qualities, good or bad, by
the minutest signs, to discern the frauds of deceiving
spirits, who shelter themselves under the appearance
The importance of this quality, in default of which
all others are without real utility, may be easily comprehended ; the trouble is, many mediums confound
experience, fruit of study, with aptitude, product of
organization; they believe themselves " passed masters " because they write easily; they repudiate all
advice, and become the prey of lying and hypocritical
spirits, who take them captive by nattering their pride.
(See after, chapter on Obsession)
Flexible Mediums. Those in whom the. faculty is
most easily adapted to various kinds of communications, and by whom all spirits, or nearly all, can manifest themselves spontaneously, or by invocation.
" This variety of mediums approach very nearly to
Exclusive Mediums. Those by whom one spirit man-
ifests himself by preference, and even to the exclusion
of all others.
" This is always owing to a defect in flexibility; when
the spirit is good, he may attach himself to the medium from sympathy, and with a praiseworthy object ;
when he is bad, it is always with a view to bringing
the medium into subjection to him. It is a defect
rather than a good quality, and almost obsession."
(See chapter on Obsession)
Mediums for Invocation. Flexible mediums are most
fitted for this kind of communication, and to the questions in detail that may be addressed to spirits.
There are, under this head, mediums who are entirely
" Their answers are almost always limited to a re-
stricted outline, incompatible with the development of
Mediums for Spontaneous Dictations. They receive,
by preference, spontaneous communications from spir-
its who come without being called. When this faculty
is special with a medium, it is difficult, sometimes even
impossible, to make an invocation by him.
" Yet they are better furnished than those of the
preceding shade. Understand that by furnishing here
is understood cerebral material; for there needs often,
I will even say always, a greater amount of intelli-
gence for spontaneous dictations than for invocations.
Understand here, by spontaneous dictations, those
which really deserve this name, and not a few incomplete phrases, or some ordinary thoughts to be found
in every human head-piece.
3. According to the Kind and Speciality of the Communications.
193. Versifying Mediums. They obtain, more easily
than others, communications in verse. Very common
for bad verses, very rare for good ones.
Poetic Mediums. Without obtaining verse, the com-
munications they receive are somewhat vaporous and
sentimental; nothing expresses roughness: they are,
more than others, suited to the expression of tender
and affectionate expressions. All is vague, and it
would be useless to ask anything exact of them. Very
Positive Mediums. Their communications have, in
general, a character of clearness and precision which
is easily accommodated to circumstantial details and
exact teachings. Quite rare.
Literary Mediums. They have neither the vagueness
of poetic mediums, nor the matter of fact of positive
mediums ; but they discuss with sagacity ; their style
is correct, elegant, and often remarkably eloquent
Incorrect Mediums. They can obtain very good
things, thoughts of irreproachable morality; but their
style is diffuse, incorrect, full of repetitions and improper terms.
" Material incorrectness of style is, generally speak-
ing, the fault of want of intellectual culture of the
medium, who is not, in this respect, a good instrument
for the spirit; the spirit attaches little importance to
it; for him, the essential thing is the thought, and he leaves you free to give it a suitable form. It is not the
same with the false and illogical ideas a communication may enclose; they are always an indication of the
inferiority of the spirit."
Historical Mediums. Those who have a special ap-
titude for historical developments. This faculty, like
all the others, is independent of the knowledge of the
mediums; for unlearned persons, and even children,
are often seen to treat of subjects far above their men-
tal caliber. A rare variety of positive mediums.
Mediums for Trivial and Obscene Communications.
Scientific Mediums. We do not say scientists, for
they may be very ignorant, and, notwithstanding that,
they may be more especially suited to communications
relating to the sciences.
Medical Mediums. Their speciality is to serve more
easily as interpreters to spirits for medical prescrip-
tions. They must not be confounded with healing
mediums, for these absolutely do nothing but transmit
the thought of the spirit, and have, by themselves, no
influence. Quite common.
Religious Mediums. They receive, more especially,
communications of a religious character, or those that
treat questions of religion without regard to their
beliefs or their habits.
Moral Philosophic Mediums. Their communications
have usually for their object questions of morals and
higher philosophy. Very common for morals.
" All these shades are varieties of aptitudes of good
mediums. As to those who have a special aptitude
for certain communications, scientific, historical, medi-
cal, or others, beyond their actual caliber, be sure they
have possessed these knowledges in another existence,
and that they have remained with them in a latent
state; they make a part of the cerebral material necessary to the spirit who manifests himself; they
are the elements which facilitate the way for him to
communicate his own ideas ; for these mediums are but
instruments for him, more intelligent and more easily
managed than an animal would be. ERASTUS."
These words indicate the kind of communications that
certain mediums habitually receive, and the nature of
the spirit who makes them. Whoever has studied the
spirit world in all the degrees of its scale, knows that
there are those whose perversity equals that of the
most depraved men, and who are pleased to express
their thoughts in the grossest terms. Others, less
abject, are contented with trivial expressions. These
mediums should desire to be relieved from the pref-
erence these spirits accord them, and should envy
those who, in the communications they receive, have
never had an unwholesome word. One must have a
strange aberration of ideas, and an utter divorce from
good sense, to believe such language could be that
of good spirits.
4. According to the Physical Qualities of the Mediums.
194. Calm Mediums. They always write with a cer-
tain slowness, and without experiencing the least agi-
Rapid Mediums write with a rapidity greater than
they could voluntarily, in the ordinary state; spirits
communicate with them with the velocity of lightning
it might be said, they have a superabundance of fluid,
which permits their instantaneous identification with
the spirit. This quality has sometimes its incon-
venience, the rapidity of the writing making it very
difficult to read for any other but the medium.
It is also very fatiguing, for it expends too much
Convulsive Mediums. They are in an almost feverish
state of over-excitement; their hand, and sometimes
their whole person, is agitated with a trembling they
cannot master. The primary cause is, without doubt,
in the organization, but it depends also much on the
nature of the spirits who communicate with them ;
good and benevolent spirits always make a gentle and
agreeable impression ; the bad, on the contrary, a
" Mediums should use but rarely their medianimic
faculty, where the too frequent use of it may affect the
nervous system." (Chapter on Identity, distinction
between good and bad spirits.)
5. According to the Moral Qualities of tlie Medium.
195. We mention them summarily to memorize and
complete the list; but they will be developed by and
by in the special chapters, — On the Moral Influence
of Mediums ; On Obsession ; On Identity of Spirits ;
and others to which we call particular attention ; the
influence which the qualities and whims of the medi-
ums can exercise on the certainty of communications,
and who are those we can reasonably consider imper-
fect mediums, or good ones, will then be seen.
196. Obsessed Mediums. Those who cannot rid them-
selves of importunate and deceiving spirits, but who
are not deceived.
Fascinated Mediums. Those who are directed by
deceiving spirits, and are deluded in the nature of the
communications they receive.
Subjugated Mediums. Those who are subjected to
a moral, and often material domination, on the part of
Those who do not accept their
faculty as serious, and use it only for amusement, or
for futile things.
Those who draw no moral
profit from the instructions, and in no way modify
their conduct or their habits.
Presumptuous Mediums. Those who pretend that
they alone are en rapport with superior spirits. They
believe in their own infallibility, and regard as inferior
and erroneous all that does not emanate from them.
Haughty Mediums. Those who are vain of the com-
munications they receive; they think they have nothing more to learn of Spiritism, and do not take to
themselves the lessons they often receive on the part
of the spirits. They are not contented with the fac-
ulties they possess ; they would have all.
Susceptible Mediums. A variety of the haughty
mediums ; they are wounded by the criticisms of
which their communications may be the object; they
are angry at the least contradiction, and if they show
what they obtain, it is to have it admired, and not to
ask advice. Generally, they take an aversion to the
persons who do not applaud them without reserve,
and desert the reunions they cannot impose upon and
" Let them go and strut elsewhere, and seek ears
more complaisant, or withdraw into isolation ; the reunions they deprive of their presence do not sustain a
very great loss. "ERASTUS."
Those who sell their faculty.
Ambitious Mediums. Those who, without putting a price on their faculty, yet hope to draw from it some
Insincere Mediums. Those who, having real facul-
ties, simulate those they have not, for the sake of being
important. The title of medium cannot be given to
those who, having no medianimic faculty, produce
effects only by jugglery.
Egotistic Mediums.. Those who use their faculty
only for personal use, and keep for themselves all the
communications they receive.
Jealous Mediums. Those who see with envy other
mediums better appreciated, and who are their superiors.
All these bad qualities have, necessarily, their coun-
terparts in good.
197. Serious Mediums. Those who use their faculty
only for good and for really useful purposes ; they would
consider it profaned if used for the satisfaction of the
curious and indifferent, or for trifles.
Modest Mediums. Those who take no merit to
themselves for the communications they receive, however beautiful they may be ; they regard themselves,
in connection with it, as strangers, and do not consider
themselves proof against mystifications. Far from
avoiding disinterested advice, they solicit it.
Devoted Mediums. Those who understand that the
true medium has a mission to fulfill, and should, when
it is necessary, sacrifice tastes, habits, pleasures, time,
and even his material interests, to the good of others.
Certain Mediums. Those who, with facility of exe-
cution, deserve the most confidence, by their own
character, the elevated nature of the spirits, whose assistants they are, and who are the least exposed to
be deceived. We shall see, by and by, that this secu-
rity depends not at all on the names, more or less
respectable, that the spirits -take.
" It is incontestable, you can readily see, that thus
criticising the qualities and whims of mediums, will
excite contrarieties, and even animosities, with some;
but what matter ? Mediumship is spreading day by
day, and more and more, and the medium who would
take these reflections amiss would prove one thing —
that he is not a good medium, or is assisted by bad
spirits. Then, too, as I have already said, it is but
for a time; and bad mediums, or those who abuse
or misuse their faculties, will suffer the sad consequences, as some have already done ; they will learn
to their cost what it is. to turn to the profit of their
worldly passions a gift which God has given them for
their moral advancement. If you cannot lead them
into the good path, pity them, for I can tell you they
are cast away by God. ERASTUS."
" This descriptive list is of great importance, not
only for sincere mediums, who will truly seek, in reading it, to avoid the dangers to which they are exposed,
but also for those who make use of mediums, because
it will show them what they may rationally expect in
it. It should be always kept in view by every one
engaged in manifestations, the same as the Spirit
Scale, which is its complement: these two descriptive
lists sum up all the principles of the doctrine, and will
contribute more than may be supposed to restore
Spiritism to its true mission. SOCRATES."
198. All these varieties of mediums present infinite
degrees in their intensity : there are many which con-
stitute but shades, properly speaking, but which are not the less effects of special aptitudes. It may easily
be supposed that the faculty of a medium being rigor-
ously circumscribed to one single kind is quite rare ;
the same medium can,-doubtless, have several tenden-
cies, but there is always a governing one, and to the
cultivation of that one he should devote himself if it
It is a serious wrong to wish to press to the development a faculty one does not possess: all those
whose germs are seen to be within us should be cultivated, but to pursue the others is, in the first place, to
lose time, and, in the second place, to lose, perhaps,
— weaken, certainly, — those with which we are en-
" When the principle, the germ of a faculty, exists,
it is always shown by unequivocal signs. By adhering
to his speciality the medium may excel, and obtain,
grand and beautiful things ; in trying to do all, he will
do nothing well. Be it remarked, in passing, that the
desire to extend indefinitely the circle of his faculties
is'a haughty presumption that the spirits never leave
unpunished ; the good always abandon the presump-
tuous, who thus become the sport of lying spirits.
" Unhappily, it is not rare to see mediums discontented with the gifts they have received, and aspire, from
self-love or ambition, to possess exceptional faculties,
that they may be noticed ; this presumption destroys
their most precious quality — that of sure mediums. " SOCRATES."
199. The study of the speciality of mediums is
necessary, not only for these, but for the invocator.
According to the nature of the spirit whom it is desired
to call, and the questions to be addressed to him, it is
proper to choose the medium most suitable to the purpose; to take the first one at hand is to be ex-
posed to the reception of incomplete or erroneous
answers. Let us take a comparison from ordinary-
usage. An editorial, even a simple copy, would not be
confided to the first comer, because he might know
how to write. A musician wants a bit of singing exe-
cuted, of his own composition ; he has at his disposal
several singers, all skillful; yet he does not take by
chance: he will choose for his interpreter the one
whose voice, expression, all whose qualities, in fact,
best answer to the nature of the music. The spirits
do the same with regard to the medium, and we
should do as do the spirits.
It is, besides, to be remarked, that the shades that
mediumship presents, and to which others might be
added, are not always related to the character of the
medium ; thus, for instance, a medium naturally gay
and jovial, might habitually have grave, even severe
communications, and vice versa; here, again, is an evident proof that he acts under a foreign influence. We
shall return to this subject in the chapter that treats
of the Moral Influence of tlie Medium.