Allan Kardec

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37. In enumerating the theories hostile to spiritism, we will begin with those that may be called theories of negation; but, as we have discussed these theories in the Introduction to The Spirits' Book and in the Conclusion of that work, as also in our short summary entitled What is Spiritism? we shall, in this place, merely recapitulate, in a few words, the most important of them.

Spirit-phenomena are of two sorts, viz.: the physical, and the intelligent. Those who do not admit the existence of spirits, because they admit of nothing outside of matter, naturally deny the indications of intelligence in the phenomena referred to. As regards the physical effects, they comment upon these from their own stand-point; and their arguments may be summed up under the four following heads: -

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