Allan Kardec

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2. According to the Development of the Faculty.

192. Novice Mediums. Those in whom the faculty is not yet fully developed, and who lack the necessary experience.

Unproductive Mediums. Those who can succeed in obtaining only insignificant things — monosyllables, signs, or letters, without connection. (See chapter on Formation of Mediums)

Formed of Complete Mediums. Those in whom the medianimic faculties are completely developed, who transmit the communications they receive with facility and promptitude, without hesitation. It may be readily supposed that this result is not obtained without prac- tice, while with novice mediums the communications are slow and difficult.

Laconic Mediums. Those whose communications, though easy, are brief and without development.

Explicit Mediums. The communications they obtain have all the fullness and extent that a perfect writer can attain.

" This aptitude is due to the expansion and the facility of habit, often acquired in a short time, while experience is the result of a serious study of all the difficulties presented in the practice of Spiritism. Experience gives the medium the tact necessary to appreciate the nature of the spirits, who manifest themselves, to judge their qualities, good or bad, by the minutest signs, to discern the frauds of deceiving spirits, who shelter themselves under the appearance of truth."

The importance of this quality, in default of which all others are without real utility, may be easily comprehended ; the trouble is, many mediums confound experience, fruit of study, with aptitude, product of organization; they believe themselves " passed masters " because they write easily; they repudiate all advice, and become the prey of lying and hypocritical spirits, who take them captive by nattering their pride. (See after, chapter on Obsession)
Flexible Mediums. Those in whom the. faculty is most easily adapted to various kinds of communications, and by whom all spirits, or nearly all, can manifest themselves spontaneously, or by invocation.

" This variety of mediums approach very nearly to sensitive mediums."

Exclusive Mediums. Those by whom one spirit man- ifests himself by preference, and even to the exclusion of all others.

" This is always owing to a defect in flexibility; when the spirit is good, he may attach himself to the medium from sympathy, and with a praiseworthy object ; when he is bad, it is always with a view to bringing the medium into subjection to him. It is a defect rather than a good quality, and almost obsession." (See chapter on Obsession)

Mediums for Invocation. Flexible mediums are most fitted for this kind of communication, and to the questions in detail that may be addressed to spirits. There are, under this head, mediums who are entirely special.

" Their answers are almost always limited to a re- stricted outline, incompatible with the development of general subjects."

Mediums for Spontaneous Dictations. They receive, by preference, spontaneous communications from spir- its who come without being called. When this faculty is special with a medium, it is difficult, sometimes even impossible, to make an invocation by him.

" Yet they are better furnished than those of the preceding shade. Understand that by furnishing here is understood cerebral material; for there needs often, I will even say always, a greater amount of intelli- gence for spontaneous dictations than for invocations.
Understand here, by spontaneous dictations, those which really deserve this name, and not a few incomplete phrases, or some ordinary thoughts to be found in every human head-piece.

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