Allan Kardec

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97. It is, however, to be observed that phenomena of this character are more easily imitated than most others; for which reason we must always be on our guard against trickery. We know what conjurors can do in this line and dupes may easily be made by skilful and interested manoeuvres, even without the conjuror's skill. The best of all guarantees against frauds of the description alluded to are, first, the honourability and disinterestedness of the medium; secondly, the attentive examination of all the circumstances under which such reputed phenomena occur; and, thirdly, a wide and enlightened experience of spiritism, which alone enables us to form a correct judgement in regard to Occurrences that may appear suspicious.

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