321. The phenomenon of materialization is not less accessible to jugglery, and a person can easily be the dupe of a skillful sharper without having recourse to a professional. In the special article we have published above (No. 96), the spirits have themselves told the exceptional conditions under which they can be pro duced ; whence it may be concluded that the easy and optional obtaining of them must be held more or less suspicious. Direct writing is under the same head.