Allan Kardec

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187. Mediums may be divided into two great classes.

MEDIUMS FOR PHYSICAL EFFECTS. Those who have the power to induce material effects or ostensible manifestations. (No. 160.)

MEDIUMS FOR INTELLECTUAL EFFECTS. Those who. are more especially proper to receive and transmit intelligent communications.. (No. 65, &c.)

All the other varieties more or less directly belong to one or the other of these classes ; some pertain to both. If the different phenomena produced under medianimic influence are analyzed, it will be seen that in all there is a physical effect, and that to the physical effects are most often joined an intelligent one. The boundary between the two is sometimes difficult to establish; but that is of no consequence. We comprehend under the denomination Mediums for Intellectual Effects those who can more specially serve as intermediaries for regular and continuous communica- tions. (No. 133.)

Varieties common to all Kinds of Mediumship.

188. Sensitive Mediums. Persons susceptible to the presence of spirits by a general or local, a vague or material impression. Most of them distinguish the spirits, good or bad, by the nature of the impression.

"Delicate and very sensitive mediums should abstain from communications with violent spirits, or those whose impression is painful, because of the fatigue resulting from it."

Natural or Unconscious Mediums. Those who pro- duce the phenomena spontaneously/without any participation of their will, and often against it. (No. 161.)

Optional or Voluntary Mediums. Those who have the power of inducing the phenomena by an act of their will. (No. 160.) '

" Whatever may be this will, they could do nothing should the spirits refuse, which proves the intervention of a foreign power."

Special Varieties for Physical Effects.

189. Tipping Mediums. Those by whose influence noises and rappings are produced. A very common variety, with or without the will. •

Moving Mediums. Those who produce the move- ment of inert bodies. Very common. (No. 61.)

Mediums for Translations and Suspensions. Those who produce the aerial translations and the suspension in space, without support, of inert bodies. There are those who can raise themselves. More or less rare, according to the development of the phenomenon ; very rare in the latter case. (Nos. 75, &c, and No. 80.)

Musical Mediums. They induce the playing of instruments without contact. V ery rare. (No. 74, ques- tion 24.)

Mediums for Apparitions. Those who can induce fluidic or tangible apparitions visible to those present (No.100, question 27, and No. 104.)

Mediums for Materialisation. Those who can serve as. auxiliaries to the spirits, to bring material objects. A variety of the moving mediums, and mediums for translations. Exceptional. (No. 96.)

Nocturnal Mediums. Those who obtain certain physical effects only in obscurity. I give the answer of a spirit to the question, if these mediums may be considered as forming a variety.

" A specialty may certainly be made of i t ; but this phenomenon pertains rather to surrounding conditions than to the nature of the medium or the spirits. I should add that some escape this influence of the surroundings, and that most of the nocturnal mediums could, by practice, succeed as well in the light as in the darkness. This variety is not very numerous ; and it must be said, that under cover of this condition, which allows so much liberty in the employment of tricks, ventriloquism, and acoustic pipes, charlatans have too often played upon credulity, passing themselves off for mediums in order to make money. But what matter ? Private as well as public jugglers will be cruelly un- masked, and the spirits will prove to them that it is not good to interfere with their affairs. Yes, I repeat it, certain charlatans will be rapped over the fingers in a rude enough fashion to disgust them with the part of false mediums. Besides, all that is but for a time.

Pneumatographic Mediums.
Those who obtain direct writing. A very rare phenomenon, and one very easy to imitate by jugglery. (No. 177.) '

Remark. The spirits have insisted, against our opinion, in classing direct writing among the physical phenomena, for the reason, they say, that "intelli- gent effects are those by which the spirits use the cerebral material of the medium, which is not the case in direct writing; the action of the medium is here wholly material, while with the writing medium, even when entirely mechanical, the brain always plays an active part."

Healing Mediums. Those who have the power of heal- ing or soothing by laying on of hands, or by prayer.

" This faculty is not essentially medianimic ; it be- longs- to all true believers, whether they are mediums or not; it is often only an exaltation of magnetic power, fortified, in case of need, by the concurrence of good spirits." (No. 175.)

Excitative Mediums. Persons who have the power of developing in others, by their influence, the faculty of writing.

" This is rather a magnetic effect, than mediumship proper, for nothing proves the intervention of a spirit. In all cases it belongs to the order of physical effects. (See chapter on the Formation of Mediums)

Special Mediums for Intellectual Effects. Various Aptitudes.

190. Hearing Mediums. Those who hear spirits. Quite common. (No. 165.)

" There are many who imagine they hear, when it is only imagination."

Speaking Mediums. Those who speak under the in- fluence of spirits. Quite common. (No. 166.)

Seeing Mediums. Those who see spirits in a waking state.

The accidental or unforeseen sight of a spirit under particular circumstances is quite frequent; but the habitual or optional sight of spirits without distinction is exceptional. (No. 167.)

" It is an aptitude to which the actual state of the organs is opposed; this is why you must not always believe the word of those who say they see spirits."

Inspired Mediums. Those to whom thoughts are suggested by spirits, most often against their will, be it for the ordinary acts of life, or for great intellectual labors. (No. 182.)

Mediums for Presentiments. Persons who, under certain circumstances, have a vague intuition of ordinary future events. (No. 184.)

Prophetic Mediums. A variety of the inspired or pre- sentiment mediums; they receive, by God's permission, and with more precision than presentiment mediums, the revelation of future events of a general interest, and which they are charged to make known to men for their instruction.

" If there. are true prophets, still more are there of false ones, and of those who take the dreams of their imagination for revelations, when they are not impostors who pretend to be prophets, from ambition." (See Book on Spirits, No. 624, Characters of the true prophets.)

Somnambulistic Mediums. Those who, in a state of somnambulism, are assisted by. spirits. (No. 172.)

Ecstatic Mediums. Those who, in a state of ecstasy, receive revelations from spirits.

" Many ecstatics are the sport of their own imagina- tion, and of deceiving spirits, who profit by their exatation. Those who deserve perfect confidence are very rare."

Painting and Drawing Mediums. Those who paint or draw under the influence of spirits. We speak of those who obtain serious things, for this name cannot be given to certain mediums who are made to draw, by mocking spirits, things so grotesque that the merest scholar would disavow them. Frivolous spirits are imitators. At the time when the remarkable draw- ings of Jupiter appeared, there arose a great number

'of pretended drawing mediums, with whom the mock- ing spirits amused themselves by making them draw the most ridiculous things. One of them, among others, wishing to outdo the drawings of Jupiter, in dimensions, at least, if not in quality, made a medium draw a monument covering sheets enough to have reached two stories high. Many others drew so-called portraits which were veritable caricatures. (Revue Spirite, August, 1858.)

Medium Musicians. Those who execute, compose, or write music under the influence of spirits. There are mechanical, semi-mechanical, intuitive, and inspired medium musicians; the same as for literary communications. (See Mediums for Musical Effects)

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