Allan Kardec

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A person whose knowledge of terrestrial magnetism is limited to small magnetized duck figures swimming and moving about in a water basin would find it extremely difficult to grasp that those figurines contain the secret behind the mechanism of the universe and the movement of worlds. Likewise, a person whose knowledge of Spiritism is limited to table turning is in a similar position. To them these communications are merely a form of entertainment or a pastime, and they cannot understand how such a simple and common phenomenon connects to the biggest questions and answers concerning social order.

To the superficial observer what connection can possibly exist between a table that turns and the future of humanity. However, when we reflect on the idea of a simple pot simmering since the dawn of time, which can lift its lid at the boiling point, we realize that a powerful driving force has emerged. Human beings use this force to erase distance and move through space.

To all who believe that there is nothing beyond the material world, know that from the table turning that triggers your mocking a new philosophy has arisen. One that solves problems that no other system has been able to solve.

To all of Spiritism’s honest adversaries, I ask whether you have taken the trouble to study what you criticize. I rationally remind you that criticism is of no value unless the critic is familiar with the subject of scorn. To ridicule something of which we have no knowledge of, and which we have not meticulously examined, is not true criticism, but merely proof of a lack of judgment. If a human being had proposed this philosophy there would have been less disdain. People who claim to guide and sway public opinion would have studied it. However, as it comes from the spirits it has therefore been deemed an absurdity! As such, is has barely merited a single glance, deserving of no more than the judgment of the monkey in the fable who judged a nut by its shell. Forget its origin and assume that this book is solely the work of a human being. Then, after carefully reading it, honestly ask yourself if you find anything that warrants ridicule.


Spiritism is a staunch opponent of materialism, and it is not surprising that materialists are its adversaries. Materialism is a theory that many hardly dare to admit defending (proof that its supporters are not ardent believers and that they are dominated by their conscience), they hide behind a mask of reason and science. It is interesting how the most skeptical people speak on behalf of religions that they neither know nor understand any better than Spiritism. They focus particularly on the miraculous and the supernatural, which they deny, and as they presuppose that Spiritism is founded on the miraculous and supernatural, they declare that it can be nothing more than a ridiculous fantasy. They do not realize that in categorically denying the possibility of the miraculous and the supernatural, they are denying religion itself, which is founded on revelation and miracles.

What are revelations if not extra-human communications? All the writers of the scriptures, since Moses’ time, have spoken of this type of communication. What are miracles if not events of an unparalleled miraculous and supernatural nature, since they are, according to the liturgical sense, deviations from the laws of nature? In rejecting the miraculous and the supernatural, they reject the very basis of all religions and we should not view the subject from this perspective. Spiritism does not necessarily settle the question of miracles, meaning whether God, in certain cases deviates from the eternal laws that regulate the universe. In this regard, Spiritism leaves full freedom of choice as when it comes to belief. It dictates and proves that the phenomena on which it is based are supernatural only in appearance and that they only appear to be such to some because they are unusual. They are simply outside the limits of facts known at the moment of their observation. They are no more supernatural than all the other phenomena that science explains today, though they appeared to be miraculous in the past. All Spiritist phenomena, without exception, are the consequence of general laws. They reveal one of the powers of nature, albeit an unknown power, or rather one that has not been understood, but which observation has shown to be included in the order of things.

Spiritism, therefore, is founded less on the miraculous and the supernatural than religion itself, and those who attack it for this reason do so because they do not know what it truly is. Even if they were among the most educated people, we would say to them, “If your science, which has taught you so many things, has not taught you that the realm of nature is infinite, you are not nearly as advanced as you think you are.”


You say that you want to cure your century of the naïveté that threatens to overrun the world. Would you prefer to see the world plagued by the skepticism that you seek to spread? Doesn’t the absence of beliefs cause both the relaxing of family ties and the majority of the ailments that are undermining society today? By demonstrating the existence and immortality of the soul, Spiritism revives faith in the future, raises the spirits of the discouraged and enables us to bear the adversities of life with resignation.

Do you call this inequity? Two theories are offered, one denies the existence of a future life, while the other proclaims and proves it. One explains nothing, while the other explains everything and appeals to our reason. One justifies selfishness, while the other provides a firm basis for justice, charity and the love of one’s fellow human beings. One offers only the present and destroys every shred of hope, while the other consoles us by showing the vast horizon of the future. Now, which is the more malevolent of the two?

Some, among the most skeptical of our challengers, portray themselves as apostles of brotherhood and progress, but brotherhood implies objectivity and the rejection of personality. In true fraternity, pride is a flaw. By what right do you impose such a sacrifice on people when you tell them that death is the end for them, and that maybe even tomorrow they will be reduced to an out of order machine, thrown to the curb as trash? Why should people impose any sort of deprivation on themselves? Is it more natural for them to strive to live as comfortably as possible during the few brief seconds you grant to them? The desire to possess as much as possible, and to enjoy the greatest amount of pleasure arises from this. Hence, this desire naturally gives birth to jealousy of those who possess more. From this jealousy, all it takes is one further step to become covetous of what they possess. What holds them back from doing this? The law? However, the law does not cover every case. Is it the conscience or a sense of duty that governs one’s choices? What is the sense of duty based on? Does that sense have any purpose if everything ends with our present life? One proverb perfectly sums up this belief, “Every man for himself.” According to this belief, brotherhood, conscience, duty, humanity and even progress are empty words. Those who proclaim such a doctrine have no idea of how much harm they do to society, or how many crimes they are responsible for! But why do I speak of responsibility at all? For skeptics it is irrelevant, since they only worship matter.


The progress of humanity results from the practical application of the laws of justice, love and charity. These laws are founded on the certainty of a future life. If we eliminate this certainty, we remove the cornerstone. These laws are the basis for all others, as they comprise all the conditions of human happiness. They alone can cure the plagues of society, and we may judge, by comparing the various ages and populations of the Earth, the improvement that takes place in the conditions of social life, as these laws are better understood and better carried out.

If even just a partial and incomplete application of these laws manages to produce a noticeable improvement, imagine what it will be like when they become the basis for all social institutions! Could this be possible? Yes, because as human beings take ten steps forward, it is clear that they can take twenty, and so on. In that vein, the future can be inferred from the past. We see that the hostilities between different nations begin to soften, the barriers that separate them are toppled by civilization, and people are joining hands from one end of the world to the other. A larger measure of justice governs international laws. Wars occur less frequently and do not exclude humane feelings and attitudes. Consistency is established gradually in relationships, while the distinctions of races and classes are erased. People of different religious beliefs eventually set aside their preconceived notions so that they may unite with one another in worshiping one God.

We are talking about the nations that are at the forefront of civilization (see nos. 789-793). In all these relations, we are still far from perfection. There are still many ruins to be torn down before the last vestiges of barbarism are cleared away, but can those ruins withstand the relentless action of progress, which, in itself is a law of nature? If the present generation is more advanced than the last, why shouldn’t the next be even more advanced than ours? This will always be the case by the force of circumstances. First, as each generation passes away it takes supporters of old injustices and abuses with it. Therefore, society is gradually rebuilt with new members who have thrown aside antiquated prejudices. Second, when people want progress, they study the obstacles that impede it and focus on the means for removing them. The progressive movement of human society is irrefutable, therefore progress undoubtedly continues in the future.

It is in the nature of human beings to want to be happy. We want progress to increase our happiness, otherwise progress has no purpose. Where would we be if progress did not improve our position? When we obtain all the gratification that we can attain through intellectual progress, we realize that we have not obtained complete happiness, and that this happiness is impossible without having security in relationships. We can only obtain this security through moral progress. Thus, by the force of circumstances, we will work tirelessly for that end, and Spiritism will offer us the most effective means of reaching that goal.


People who say that Spiritism is threatening to invade the world only confirm its power by making such a statement. An opinion that is not based on both reason and proven facts cannot become universal. Therefore, if Spiritism takes root everywhere and converts every member of society including the educated class, it is clear then that it is founded in truth. As such, all the efforts of its detractors are in vain. In actuality, the ridicule thrown at it by those attempting to stop it seems only to have given it new life. This fully justifies the reassurance that is given constantly by the spirits, who have repeatedly said: “Do not be discouraged by the opposition. Whatever they do against you will turn to your advantage, and your most bitter rivals will serve you in spite of themselves. The hostility harbored by individuals is no match for God’s will.”

Through Spiritism, human beings enter a new phase, that of moral progress which is the inevitable consequence of this belief. The rapid spread of Spiritist ideas should be no surprise, due to the profound satisfaction they give to those who accept them as more than just a futile pastime. People desire happiness above all things, so it is not surprising that they would willingly embrace ideas that make them happy.

The development of these ideas has three distinct phases. The first is that of curiosity, caused by the strangeness of the phenomena produced; the second, that of reasoning and philosophy; the third, that of application and consequences. The period of curiosity has already passed. When satisfied, the mind often immediately drops a subject for another, which does not apply to subjects that spur serious thought and that appeal to reason. The second period has already begun, and the third will naturally follow. The progress of Spiritism has been particularly rapid since its essential nature and scope have been more accurately understood, and because it touches our most sensitive quality, the desire to be happy. This is the reason behind its wide acceptance, the secret of the strength that makes it triumph. It causes those who understand it to be happy while they await the extension of its influence to reach the masses. How many individuals are there who despite never having witnessed any of the physical phenomena of spirit manifestations, say to themselves, “Aside from these phenomena, there is the philosophy, which explains what no other theory or belief system has ever explained. That philosophy offers me, through arguments based on reason, a rational solution to problems that are of the most vital importance to my future. It gives me tranquility, security and confidence, while delivering me from the torment of uncertainty. In comparison with this, the question of the physical phenomena is of secondary importance.”

For people who attack it, do you have the means to fight Spiritism successfully? Offer something better in its place, and find a more philosophic solution to all the problems it solves. Give people another certainty that makes them even happier. You must understand the meaning of the word certainty, because people only accept what appears to be logical as certain. You must not be satisfied with simply saying that something is not so, which is much too easy to do. Rather than just deny it, you must provide facts, showing that what we assert is not so, has never been, and cannot be.

In addition, you must show what you have to offer in its place. You must prove that Spiritism does not make people better, and consequently happier, by promoting the practice of the purest evangelical morality. A morality that is praised so much yet practiced so little. When you have done this, you will have earned the right to attack it. Spiritism is strong because it is based on religion itself: God, the soul, and the rewards and atonements of the future. It shows those rewards and atonements as the natural consequences of material life and in the picture it presents of the future, there is nothing that even the most logical mind can discover to be contrary to reason. What compensation can those who deny the future offer for the suffering of the present life? They base their teachings on skepticism, while Spiritism is based on trust in God. Spiritism invites everyone to happiness, hope and true solidarity, the alternative is a future in which one is reduced to nothing, with only selfishness to serve as consolation. Spiritism explains everything, and you explain nothing. It proves by facts, while your assertions are groundless. How do you expect the world to be divided between these two doctrines?


Believing that Spiritism derives its strength from physical manifestations during meetings and that debunking those manifestations can bring about its downfall is to oversimplify this theory. Its strength lies in its philosophy, and particularly in its appeal to reason and common sense. In ancient times, it was the subject of secret studies, carefully hidden from society. Today there are no secrets, and Spiritism is out in the open, without ambiguity, mysticism, or allegories that would be susceptible to false interpretation. The time has come for the truth to be told and understood by all. Far from being opposed to enlightenment, this revelation is intended for all human beings. It does not require blind acceptance, but urges everyone to take stock of their own beliefs, and as its teachings are based on reason, it will always be stronger than those that are based on annihilation.

Can obstacles intended to stop their production block spirit manifestations? No, because these efforts only excite curiosity and the desire to study a forbidden subject. If spirit manifestations were the privilege of a single individual, they could easily be ended by simply preventing that person’s actions. Unfortunately, for our adversaries, the production of these manifestations is an inherent capability of every single member of society, from the poor to the rich, from the greatest to the least and from the mansion to the hovel. The prohibition of their performance in public would have little effect, as they are most successfully produced in private anyway. Since anyone may be a medium, how would it be possible to prevent a family in the privacy of their own home, people in the silence of their own rooms, or even a prisoner in a cell, from communicating with the spirits, in the very presence of those who try to prevent them from doing so? If mediums were forbidden to exercise their abilities in one country, how could they be stopped from practicing it somewhere else in the world, since mediums exist in every nation on Earth? Half the human race would need to be incarcerated in order to have any chance at silencing all mediums. Even if it were possible to burn all the Spiritist books in existence, they would immediately be reproduced because their source is beyond the reach of attack, and it is impossible to imprison or burn the spirits who are their real authors.

Spiritism is not the work of one single individual; it is as old as creation itself. It is found everywhere, in all religions, and even more so in Catholicism than in others. The Catholic religion contains everything that constitutes Spiritism: the existence of spirits of varying degrees, their secret and open relationships with people, guardian angels, reincarnation, and the emancipation of the soul during sleep, second sight, visions, and manifestations of every kind, apparitions, even including tangible apparitions. As for demons, they are nothing more than bad spirits. With the exception of the belief that the former are doomed to wrongdoing forever, as the path of progress is never closed to anyone, the only difference that exists is in terminology.

What does modern Spiritism accomplish? It makes a whole of what has been scattered about in pieces by explaining, in clear an precise terms what has been, up until now, shrouded in allegory. It eliminates the products of superstition and ignorance created by people, leaving only reality intact. This is its mission, of which there is no founder. It highlights and coordinates what already exists, but creates nothing new because its elements belong to every country and every age. Who can fatter themselves by believing that they are strong enough to stifle it by ridicule or persecution? If it were possible to destroy it in one place, it would simply reappear in another or even in the exact same spot from which it was banished. It exists in nature, and no one can obliterate a power of nature, or veto God’s will.

What interest could anyone possibly have in opposing Spiritism? These ideas are an objection against the cruelty and mistreatment that spring from pride and selfishness, which are profitable to the few and harmful to many. Therefore, Spiritism would have the masses on its side, while its challengers would be those who support the abuse it opposes. By their influence, these ideas make people more compassionate towards one another, less greedy for material possessions, and more submissive to God’s designs. It guarantees order and tranquility.


Spiritism presents three different aspects, namely, spirit manifestations, the philosophic and moral principles deduced from these events, and the application of these principles. Its adherents are divided into three classes or three degrees of advancement. First, there are those who believe in the authenticity of the spirit manifestations, and validate them as an experimental science. Second, there are those who understand its moral bearings. Lastly, there are those who practice, or at least try to practice, its moral code. Regardless of the perspective, whether experimental, scientific, or moral, every one perceives that they support an entirely different order of ideas, which must produce profound modifications in the state of the humankind. Everyone also realizes that these modifications can only be for good.

As for our adversaries, they may also be grouped into three categories. First, there are those who automatically deny whatever is new or whatever they do not initiate, and who speak without knowing what they are talking about. Everyone who refuses to admit anything beyond the scope of their senses belongs to this group. They do not see anything, do not want to see anything, and are even more unwilling to delve into anything. These individuals are in fact, unwilling to see too clearly, for fear of being forced to admit that they are mistaken. For them, Spiritism is highly improbable, insane, utopian, and does not exist, period. They are willfully incredulous. In this group we may also include those who have glanced at the subject, merely to say, “I tried, but I was not able to find any merit here” and who do not seem to be aware that half an hour is not enough time to learn a new field of science. Second, there are those who, although perfectly aware of the legitimacy of the phenomena, oppose it out of self-interested motives. They know that Spiritism is true, but they attack it because they fear its consequences. Third, there are those who find the moral rules of Spiritism to be an extremely severe condemnation of their actions and habits. Seriously acknowledging Spiritism is an inconvenience they neither reject nor accept it, but prefer to close their eyes to it. The first class is swayed by pride and conjecture; the second by ambition; the third by selfishness. This opposition disappears over time. We should then seek a fourth class of antagonists, those who base their antagonism on a careful and thorough examination, providing positive and irrefutable evidence of its falsehood.

It is too much to expect of human nature that it can be changed suddenly by Spiritist ideas. Undoubtedly, the actions are not the same, or equally powerful, in people who support these ideas. Nevertheless, their result, however slight it may be, is always beneficial, if only by proving the existence of an extra-corporeal world, and disproving the opposing materialistic doctrines. Mere observation of Spiritist phenomena can yield the same result. However, it produces other effects in people who understand its philosophy and see something more than curious phenomena. The first and most common is the development of religious notions, even in those who are indifferent to spiritual things, and even if they are not materialists. This sentiment leads to a disregard for death – not a desire for death because a Spiritist defends his or her life like anyone else. It is an indifference that causes the person to accept death, when inevitable, with resignation and without regret, as something to be welcomed rather than feared, due to the belief in life after death. The second effect is acceptance of the vicissitudes of life. Spiritism leads us to consider issues from such an elevated perspective that the significance of physical life lessens proportionally, and we are less painfully affected by its trials and tribulations. The consequence is that we have more courage when we face adversity, more moderation in our desires, and a more strongly rooted disgust for the idea of shortening our lives. Spiritism teaches that suicide always results in the loss of what we hoped to obtain. The certainty that there is a future life, that it correlates directly with our deeds and the possibility of meeting loved ones in the afterlife gives Spiritists solace. Likewise, a continual observance of life beyond the grave and understanding of what has been a mystery up to now amplifies one’s horizons infinitely. The third effect is to encourage indulgence and understanding for the flaws of others. However, it must be admitted that selfishness is one of the most persistent human traits and more difficult to uproot than others. We are willing to make sacrifices if they cost nothing, and provided that they impose no deprivation. Money exercises an irresistible attraction and very few understand the word luxury when it relates to themselves. Thus, the renunciation of the self is the most eminent sign of progress.


Some ask whether spirits teach us anything new in relation to morality, anything greater than what Christ taught. If the Spiritist moral code is none other than that of the Scriptures, does it serve any purpose? This method of reasoning is like that of Caliph Omar, in speaking of the Library of Alexandria, “If,” he said, “it contains only what is found in the Quran, it is useless, and in that case it must be burned. If it contains anything that is not found in the Quran, it is bad, and in that case, it also must be burned.”

No, Spiritism does not preach a moral code that is different from that of Jesus. In turn, haven’t the law of God already been given by Moses to humanity before the time of Christ? Is the doctrine embodied by the Ten Commandments not the same as Christ’s? Has it ever been proposed that Jesus’ moral teachings are useless because of this? To those who deny the usefulness of Spiritism, we ask the following question: why it is that Christ’s moral teachings are so rarely practiced, and why is it that those who rightly praise their value are the first to violate his paramount law of universal charity? Not only do the spirits now confirm it, but they also show us its practical utility. They make clear and intelligible the truths that were previously taught as allegories, and alongside with the eternal truths of morality they also provide us with the solution to the most abstract psychological problems.

Jesus came to show humanity the road to true goodness. Since God sent him to remind human beings of the Divine law they had forgotten, why should God not send spirits to remind them again, with greater precision, now that they are forgetting it because they have sacrificed everything for pride and greed? Who would dare to take it upon oneself to limit God’s power, or to dictate Divine ways? Who can say that the appointed time has not arrived, as declared by the spirits, when previously unknown or misunderstood truths must be openly made known to hasten humanity’s advancement? Isn’t there something evidently Divine in the fact that spirit manifestations are occurring in every corner of the globe? It is not the case that a single person or prophet comes to enlighten us, but instead, it is the case that light is breaking all around and a new world is being unfurled right before our eyes.

In the same manner that the invention of the microscope revealed an infinitely small world, the existence of which was unsuspected until then. Similarly, the telescope revealed thousands of worlds, the existence of which we never suspected, spirit communications today are revealing the existence of an invisible world surrounding us. A world that is incessantly in contact with us and that takes part in everything we do, completely unbeknownst to us. Soon the existence of that world, which is the ultimate destiny for all of us, will be as indisputable as the existence of both the microscopic world and the infinity of the universe. Is the revelation of a new world worth nothing? Is the introduction of the mysteries of life beyond the grave worthless? Granted, it is also true that these revelations, if they can be called such, conflict with certain established notions that we had, but haven’t all great scientific discoveries changed and even rescinded ideas that were fully accepted worldwide? Were our pride not forced to yield to evidence? The same will happen with Spiritism, which will soon assume its place among the other branches of human knowledge.

Our communications with the beings from the world beyond the grave enables us to see and understand our future life. They gives us a taste of both the joys and sorrows that await us depending on our merits, and brings Spiritualism back to those who had reduced humanity to the status of an organized machine. We are therefore justified in asserting that the facts of Spiritism have effectively killed materialism. Had Spiritism done nothing more than this, it would be entitled to recognition, but it has done much more because it has shown the inevitable results of wrongdoings, and, consequently, the necessity of goodness. The number of people Spiritism has brought back to a propensity of goodness, whose bad inclinations were neutralized, and whom it has turned away from wrongdoing, is already larger than assumed, and continues to grow every day. The future is a fact, the reality of which is felt and understood when we see and hear those who have left us mourning or celebrating what they did when they were on Earth. It is no longer vague or a mere hope. Everyone who witnesses these communications begins to reflect and feel the need for self-examination, self-judgment and self-improvement.


Opponents of Spiritism have used the differences of opinions among Spiritists, on certain doctrinal points, as weapons against it. It is not surprising that, at the beginning of a new science when the preliminary observations are still incomplete, the subject is analyzed from different perspectives, and that contradictory theories are then put forward. Nonetheless, a thorough study of the facts in question has already deflated three fourths of such theories, starting with that which attributes all spirit communications to bad spirits, as though it were impossible for God to send good spirits. This theory is absurd because it contradicts the facts, and blasphemous because it denies God’s power and goodness. The spirits have always advised us not to worry about the differences of opinion existing among Spiritists, assuring us that harmony will eventually reign. Now, we see that this harmony, with respect to most of the points at issue, has already been established and that the remaining conflicting opinions are disappearing day by day. To the question, “While awaiting the establishment of harmony, upon what basis can an impartial and fair-minded individual form an opinion regarding the relative merits of the various theories suggested by the spirits?” The following reply was given:

“The purest light is not obscured by any cloud; the most precious diamond is the one that is flawless. Judge the spirits based on the purity of their teachings. Do not forget that there are many who have not yet freed themselves from their earthly ideas. Learn to distinguish them by their language; judge them by the sum total of what they say; see whether there is a logical sequence in their ideas; verify that nothing betrays ignorance, pride or malice. Ultimately, if their communications always bear the stamp of wisdom it is proof of true superiority. If errors did not exist in your world, it would be perfect, but it is far from being so. You still have to learn to distinguish error from truth and need experience to exercise your judgment in order to advance. Harmony is achieved when good is not mixed with iniquity and when people rally spontaneously to that principle, because they consider it to be the truth.

Moreover, never mind a few dissidents whose objections are more in form than in depth. Observe that the fundamental principles are the same everywhere, and should unite you all in a common bond: the love of God and the practice of goodness. Regardless of the method of progression and the normal conditions of your future existence, the ultimate goal is still the same: to do right, and there are not two ways of doing it.”

There may be differences of opinion among Spiritists about a few theoretical points. However, all of them agree on the fundamentals principles. Harmony already exists among them, with the exception of a very small number of people who do not yet admit the participation of spirits in the manifestations. They attribute them to either purely physical causes, which contradicts a fundamental Spiritist assertion that, ‘Every intelligent effect must have an intelligent cause,’or to the refection of our own thought, which is disproved by the facts. The other points are merely secondary and have nothing to do with the essential core. So there may be schools that seek to illuminate the still controversial parts of science, but there must not be rival sects. Opposition should only exist between those who desire good, and those who desire or do bad. A person who sincerely adopts the moral principles established by Spiritism can neither desire wickedness nor wish ill upon his or her neighbor, regardless of opinion. If any school of thought is wrong, enlightenment will come soon enough if its practitioners want it honestly without clutching to preconceived notions. In the meantime, everyone has a common bond that should unite all in the same sentiment. They all have a common goal, and the road traveled is irrelevant, provided it leads to the same destination. No one should attempt to force their opinion upon others, whether pertaining to physical or moral constraints, and anyone who would hurl insults or curses at another would clearly be in the wrong, obviously acting under the influence of bad spirits. Reason is the best argument, and moderation does more to ensure the triumph of the truth than attacks tainted by envy and jealousy. Good spirits exhort us to strive to live in harmony and to learn to love our neighbor, and nothing malicious or uncharitable can ever come from a pure source. In this regard and as a fitting conclusion to this book, we share the following words from the spirit of Saint Augustine:

“Human beings have torn one another to shreds for long enough, cursing each other in the name of a peaceful and merciful God, whom they insult by committing such a sacrilege. Spiritism is the link that will one day form a bond between them, by showing what is truth and what is error. However, there will still be scribes and Pharisees who will reject it for a very long time, exactly as they rejected Christ. Would you like to know what spirits influence the various groups dividing 382 Allan Kardec - The Spirits’ Book the current inhabitants of this world? Judge them by their deeds and principles. Good spirits never incite evil. They never advise or condone murder and violence. They never stimulate hatred, thirst for wealth and honors, or greed for earthly possessions. Those who are kind, humane and compassionate to all are not only friends of good spirits, but Jesus as well because they are following the road that he has shown will lead to him.” Saint Augustine

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