Allan Kardec

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Creation of Worlds - Creation of Living Beings - Populating the Earth – Adam - Diversity of the Human Race - Existence of Multiple Worlds - Biblical Account of Creation

Creation of Worlds

The universe comprises an infinite number of worlds that we see and even those we do not see, in addition to all animate and inanimate beings, all the stars that revolve in space, and all the energy that flls up that space.

37. Was the universe created, or has it existed for all eternity, like God?
“The universe obviously could not have made itself, and if it has existed for eternity, as God has, it could not be God’s work.” Reason tells us that the universe cannot have made itself, and as it could not be the work of chance, it must be the work of God.

38. How did God create the universe?
“Using a well-known expression: God’s will. Nothing can give a better idea of this all-powerful will than those striking words contained in the Book of Genesis, ‘God said, ‘Let there be light,’ and there was light.’”

39. Can we know how the worlds were created?
“All that we can say and that you are capable of understanding is that the worlds were created by the condensation of matter distributed throughout space.”

40. In accordance with current beliefs are comets the beginning of matter condensation and thus, worlds that are in the process of being formed?
“Yes, but it is absurd to believe in their infuence. More specifcally, the infuence that is commonly attributed to them, because all the heavenly bodies have their own role in certain physical phenomena.”

41. Can a completely formed world disappear and have its matter then be re-distributed throughout space?
“Yes. God renews worlds just as living beings are renewed.”

42. Can we know the length of time required to create worlds, Earth, for instance? “I cannot answer this question because only the Creator knows. The person who claims to possess such knowledge or knowing how many centuries were required for such formation would be foolish.”

Creation of Living Beings

43. When did the population of the Earth frst begin?
“In the beginning there was only chaos. The elements were in a state of confusion, but they gradually settled into their proper places. Once this happened, living beings capable of adapting to the various successive states of the planet appeared accordingly.”

44. From where did the living beings of Earth originate?
“The seeds were contained in the Earth itself, awaiting the opportune moment for their development. Organic principles came together once the force that kept them apart was broken. Those principles formed the seeds of all the living beings that populated the Earth. Those seeds remained dormant, like the seeds of plants, until the arrival of the right moment for the birth of each species. The members of each species came together and then multiplied.”

45. Where were the organic elements before the formation of the Earth?
“They existed in the fuid state in space with the spirits, or on other planets, awaiting the creation of Earth to begin a new life in a new world.”

Chemistry shows us the molecules of inorganic bodies merging to produce invariable crystals for each species, once the conditions are ripe for their combination. The slightest disturbance of those conditions can block the union of material elements, or at least prevent the methodical arrangement of the latter which constitutes the crystal. Is there a reason why this same process cannot take place among organic elements? We preserve the seeds of plants and animals for years, which are then only born at a certain temperature and under certain conditions. Wheat seeds have been known to sprout after centuries. This demonstrates that there is a dormant principle of vitality in seeds, which awaits favorable circumstances to develop. Is it not possible then that that which takes place right before our eyes everyday also has taken place at the birth of our planet? Does this creation of living beings by the forces of nature amidst chaos detract in any way from the awe-inspiring power and glory of God? Quite the opposite, in fact. The interpretation of creation presented by us is more consistent than any other with our sense of God exerting power over all the worlds of infnity through eternal laws. This theory does not resolve the origin of vital elements, but God has mysteries and has put limits on our investigations.

46. Are any living beings born spontaneously?
“Yes, but the original seeds already existed in a dormant state. You witness this phenomenon on a daily basis. For instance, the tissues of the human body and animals contain the germs of many parasites waiting for the fermentation needed for their life. It is a small world of microscopic beings that is dormant, waiting to be created.”

47. Was the human species among the organic elements contained in the Earth?
“Yes, and it arrived at the opportune moment. The saying that human beings were ‘formed out of the dust of the Earth’ is very much true.”

48. Can we determine the time of the appearance of humans and other living beings on Earth?
“No, all your calculations are illusions.”

49. If the seeds of the human species were among the organic elements of the Earth, why is it that human beings are not produced spontaneously today, as they originally were?
“The principle of things is one of God’s secrets. Nevertheless, it may be asserted that the frst humans absorbed the elements necessary for their creation to transfer said elements according to the laws of reproduction. The same may be said in regard to all the different species of living beings.”

Population of the Earth – Adam

50. Did the human race begin with one man only?
“No, the man known as Adam was neither the frst nor the only man who populated the Earth.”

51. Is it possible to determine when Adam lived?
“Adam lived approximately around the time that you attribute to him, about 4000 years before Christ.”

The man that we refer to as Adam was one of the people who survived one of the great disasters that changed the Earth’s surface over the course of history. He became the foundation of one of the races that populate our planet today. The laws of nature dictate that it would be impossible for the amount of progress that we know to have been accomplished by humanity long before Christ to have been accomplished so quickly if it had only existed since the time of Adam. Some have dubbed the story of Adam a myth or allegory personifying the earliest ages of the world, a belief that currently stands as the most reasonable.

Diversity of the Human Race

52. What causes the physical and moral differences in the diversity of the human race on Earth?
“Climate, lifestyles, and habits. The same differences are produced in two children born to the same mother but raised apart from one another under different conditions, bear no moral resemblance to each other.”

53. Was humankind born at various points around the planet?
“Yes, and at various times. This is one of the causes of diversity in the human race. The earliest people spread out across different climates and combined with other races, which formed new ethnic groups.”

a) Do these differences constitute different species? “Of course not. All of these different people are a single family. Do the differences between the varieties of the same fruit stop them from being the same species?”

54. If the human species cannot be traced back to a single ancestor, should humans stop regarding one another as brothers and sisters?
“Under God, all human beings are brothers and sisters animated by a spirit and having the same goal. The human mind is inclined to interpret words literally.”

Existence of Multiple Worlds

55. Are all the planets that revolve in space inhabited? “Yes and the people on Earth are far from being the leaders in intelligence, goodness, and general development – despite what they may believe. There are many people who have such a high opinion of themselves, and even believe that your little world alone has the privilege of being inhabited by intelligent beings. What an arrogant thought! They believe that God has created the universe only for them.”

God has populated planets with living beings, all of which have a role in the ultimate Divine plan. Believing that living beings are confned to the one point of the universe inhabited by us casts doubt on God’s wisdom. God has done nothing in vain, and must have assigned a purpose to every other world that is more important than merely serving as a lovely backdrop for our planet. Furthermore, there is nothing in the position, size, or physical makeup of Earth that warrants the assumption that it alone, of the thousands of planets in space, has the privilege of being inhabited.

56. Do all planets have the same physical constitution?
“No, they do not resemble one another at all.”

57. As the physical constitution of the various planets is not the same for all, do the beings inhabiting those worlds have a different type of body and physical makeup? “Of course, just as fsh in your world are designed for living in water and birds for the air.”

58. Are the planets farthest removed from the sun deprived of light and heat, since the sun only appears to be a tiny star to them? “Are you assuming that there are no other sources of light and heat than the sun? Are you completely dismissing electricity which, in some worlds, plays a role unknown to you and which is much more important than the role it plays on Earth? Besides, how do you know that the beings of those worlds see the same way you do, with organs like yours?”

The conditions of existence for the beings inhabiting different worlds must be adapted to the world in which they are destined to live. If we had never seen fsh, we would not be able to comprehend how any living being could survive in water. This same idea applies to all the other worlds, which most likely contain elements that are unknown to us. On our own planet, the long polar nights are illuminated by the electrical displays of the aurora borealis, commonly called the northern lights. Is it impossible to imagine that electricity may be more abundant in other worlds compared to ours, and play a role that we cannot even fathom? According to this argument, those worlds could contain different sources of heat and light required by their inhabitants.

Biblical Account of Creation

59. Different populations of Earth have formed contrasting ideas about creation, depending on their degree of scientifc advancement. Reason, supported by science, recognizes the implausibility of some theories. The explanation given by the spirits confirms the theory that has long been recognized by the most enlightened people.

Arguments against this theory are that they contradict sacred texts. However when we examine these statements carefully they show us that this contradiction is more superfcial than genuine. It results from the interpretation that has been given to allegorical expressions.

Adam, widely regarded as the frst man and sole ancestor of the human race, is not the only point that caused religious convictions around the world to change. At one time, the movement of the Earth so blatantly contradicted the Bible that every type of criticism imaginable was fred against it. Despite this, the Earth continued to move in its orbit, and people today couldn’t possibly object to this fact without jeopardizing their own sanity and credibility.

The Bible also states that the world was created in six days, and establishes the date of creation at about 4000 years before Christ. According to the Bible, Earth did not exist before that time and was created out of nothing at the time of creation. Yet science has undeniably proven otherwise. The history of Earth is irrefutably written in fossils, proving beyond the shadow of a doubt that the six days of creation are successive periods, each of which may have been millions of years. This is not a matter of opinion, but a fact that is as indisputably certain as the movement of the Earth, and one that theology itself can no longer refuse to acknowledge. This admission provides yet another example of the errors we commit by attributing literal truth to fgurative language. Should we conclude that the Bible is one giant error? No, but we must admit that people have defnitely blundered in its interpretation.

Science, in studying the geological records of the Earth itself, has determined the order in which the different species of living beings appeared, and this order matches the sequence indicated in the Book of Genesis.

The main difference is that Earth was created according to the laws and action of the forces of nature over millions of years. It did not spring miraculously from the hand of God in a few days and it was not formed by the whim of Divine will. Does this eclipse God’s power or strength? Is the result of creative energy less sublime when it does not happen instantaneously? Of course not, and anyone who does not recognize the magnifcence of the Divine in this evolution of eternal laws is quite foolish. Science, far from diminishing the glory of Divine power, shows us that action from a more sublime perspective is consistent with our notions of God’s power and majesty precisely because the work was carried out without disregard for the laws of nature.

Modern science, in agreement with Moses, states that humanity appeared last in the creation of living beings. However, Moses places the great food as having occurred 1654 years after the creation of the world, while geology shows that the great natural disasters occurred before the appearance of human beings. To date, the earliest strata contain no traces of humanity’s presence, nor that of the animals coexisting with it. Nothing conclusively establishes that this is impossible. Since many discoveries have already raised questions about this, it is possible that at any moment the material certainty of the anteriority of the human race may come to light, showing us that in this case, as well as others, the Biblical text portrays an allegory. The question to be examined here is whether the great food is the same suffered by Noah or if the amount of time required for the formation of sedimentary layers and rock formations containing fossils does not allow this conclusion.. If eventually traces of the existence of human beings before the great food are discovered, it is evident then that either Adam was not the frst man, or that his creation dates back closer to the dawn of time. There is no arguing against fact if supporting evidence is found. This fact would have to be acknowledged, in the same manner that the movement of the Earth and the six periods of creation were also acknowledged.

The existence of humans before the great food is still hypothetical. However, the same argument cannot be made against the following considerations: In stating that human beings frst appeared on the Earth 4000 years before Christ, and if the entire human race, with the exception of a single family, was wiped out 1650 years later, that means that the populating of the Earth dates back only to Noah’s time, which is only 2350 years before Christ. However, when the Israelites relocated to Egypt around 1800 BC, they found the country to be a very densely populated, advanced civilization. History also shows that, at that same time, India and various other countries were also populated and fourishing, not to mention other nations that claim to date back further in time. We must therefore presume that, from 2400 BC to 1800 BC---that is 600 years – the descendants of a single individual were able to populate every known country and even those that were unknown which, we have no reason to believe, were devoid of inhabitants. We must further presume that humankind was able to evolve from being unaware to the highest degree of intellectual development, in this brief stint of time, which completely contradicts anthropological theory.

The diversity of the human race supports this opinion. While differences in climate and lifestyle clearly change the physical characteristics of humans, we know the extent to which these adaptations may occur as a result of these infuences. Physiological examination conclusively proves that there are fundamental differences between the races that are too great to have been caused by climate differences alone.

The crossing of races diminishes extreme characteristics by creating new varieties rather than reproducing the extremes. This process presupposes the existence of separate races, but how can this be explained if all of humanity can be traced back to a single ancestor and a short period of creation? How can we deduce, for example, that Noah’s descendants, in such a short time, had transformed into Ethiopians? Such a metamorphosis would be as implausible as a wolf turning into a sheep, a beetle into an elephant, or a bird into a fsh. No preconceived opinion or belief system can resist the evidence of facts. If we believe that humans existed before the most widely accepted time of creation, that there is a diversity of origins, that Adam lived 6000 years ago populating a country that until then had been uninhabited, that Noah’s food was a local catastrophe mistaken for the great geological disaster, and if we make the proper allowances for the allegorical expressions that are characteristic of the eastern style and common to the sacred texts of all religions, every diffculty disappears.

This is why it is important to be careful in literally interpreting fgurative statements of belief systems, which, like so many others, could someday enjoy a retraction from those who currently oppose them. Religion, rather than fearing the discoveries of science, should allow itself to be bolstered by it. This union is the only way that religion can arm itself against skeptics.

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