Allan Kardec

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4. Where can the proof of God’s existence be found?
“In a premise that is applied in science: there is no effect without a cause. Investigate the cause of anything that is not the work of human beings and reason shall provide the answer.”
To believe in God, simply observe the works of creation. The universe exists, therefore there is a cause. Doubting the existence of God would be to deny that every effect has a cause, and to presuppose the idea that something could be created from nothing.

5. What inference can be drawn from the innate perception possessed by all of humanity concerning God’s existence?
“That God exists, because from where would this idea originate if there were no real basis? Once again, this is a corollary of the principle stating that there can be no effect without a cause.”

6. Could our intuitive sense of God’s existence simply be the result of education and the product of acquired ideas?
“If such were the case, how could this intuitive sense be retained by primitive cultures?”

If the sentiment of the existence of a Supreme Being were solely the result of education, it would not be universal and would only exist, like all acquired knowledge, in the minds of those who have received this education.

7. Is the frst cause of creation found in the essential properties of matter?
“Then what would be the cause of these properties? There must always be a frst cause.”

To attribute creation to the essential properties of matter would be to consider the effect as a cause, because these properties are an effect, which must in turn have a cause.

8. What should we think of the opinion that creation was an unplanned combination of matter, in other words, pure chance? “Another absurdity! What person possessing common sense can seriously view chance as an intelligent agent? Besides, what is chance? Nothing.”

The harmony that regulates the universe can only result from predetermined combinations and ends, thereby revealing the existence of an intelligent power. Attributing creation to chance is irrational because chance is blind and cannot produce the effects of intelligence. If chance were intelligent, it would no longer be chance.

9. Where may we see in the frst cause of all things a supreme intelligence, superior to all other intelligences?
“There is the proverb that dictates, ‘The worker is known by his or her work.’ In that case, look at the work and you will fnd the author. Pride is what creates skeptics. Arrogant human beings want nothing to be above them, which is why they are called strong-minded. Pitiful beings, just one breath from God would obliterate them!”

We evaluate the power of intelligence by its works. As no human being could create that which is produced by nature, the frst cause must be superior to humans. Regardless of the wonders accomplished by humankind, human intelligence itself has a cause and the greater the results achieved, the greater the cause of which it is the effect. It is this supreme intelligence that is the frst cause of all things, whatever name humanity may bestow upon it.

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