16. But woe to that man by whom the offence comes. That is to say, that evil always being evil, the person who without knowing serves as an instrument of Divine justice, whose bad instincts were utilized, commits no less an evil and so deserves punishment. In this manner an ungrateful child is a punishment or trial for the parents, who are forced to suffer by its attitude. This is because the mother or father had themselves been bad children and made their parents suffer. So they pay the penalty. But the circumstances should not be an excuse for the child's behaviour, who in return will have to pay the penalty through his or her own children, or in some other manner.